The first article inspection(FAI): A comprehensive guide from definition to practice

First article inspection (FAI) is a vital manufacturing and engineering procedure that verifies the production process against industry standards and regulatory requirements. It is an examination of the first production unit to ensure that it complies with all specified requirements, which is an important step in confirming the quality of a beginning production run. First article inspection helps spot and eliminate any potential problems earlier in the production cycle thus saving time and resources over the long run while ensuring that the product is made exactly as per approved design and meets customer’s expectation.

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What is first article inspection(FAI)?

first article inspection criteria

First Article Inspection (FAI) – This is an essential manufacturing process used to ascertain whether or not the first piece produced adheres to all stipulated conditions. During FAI, the first completed part will undergo comprehensive inspection to ascertain its quality, adherence to specifications, and fulfillment of customer wants as well as expectations. In this case, informal production checks are carried out prior to actual manufacturing to maintain quality control consistency throughout.

The importance of the first article’s inspection(FAI)

The First Article Inspection (FAI) plays a leading role in the manufacturing industry, ensuring compliance of products and being a source for progressive process improvements. These are some of the reasons why FAI is so important:

  • Quality Control: FAI checks if any issues in the production process need resolving by inspecting in general the first article.
  • Compliance: It is through FAI that conformance to product design, engineering drawings, as well as customer requirements are checked.
  • Cost Savings: The early recognition and resolution of problems helps avoid added repair costs associated with it at later stages hence contributing to reduced production costs.
  • Customer Satisfaction: Through FAIs customers’ expectations are met and their satisfaction heightened leading to loyalty.
  • Process Improvement:
  • Companies can improve efficiency by analyzing past data and adjusting production. Analyzing First Article Inspection (FAI) data helps identify and address recurring issues, enhancing product quality and reducing waste. This approach also boosts responsiveness to market changes.
  • Record Retention: In this case, documents generated by FAI serve as testimonies or references during the production process thereby aiding in the resolution of potential disputes.

First article inspection(FAI) standards

The standards for the first article inspection are important in ensuring product compliance and requirements. These are some of the standard and specifications used during FAI:

  • AS9102 FAI Standard: This is specific to the aerospace industry, and outlines what FAI entails such as records, reports, and inspection contents.
  • ISO 9001 Standard: It applies to different industries where organizations have to ensure that their products meet customer requirements and relevant legal obligations as well as improving continuously on their quality management systems.
  • IATF 16949 Standard: It applies to the vehicle manufacturing sector where FAI must be performed for purposes of validating production process stability and conformance.
  • ASME Standards: Materials design manufacture among other concerns in regard to mechanical engineering field.
  • International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) published 9100 series standards: these encompass aero-space defense industries’ quality management system requirements including relevant aspects of FAI.

Standards for FAI differ amongst various industries; considering the demands for material and safety regarding aerospace results in detailed comprehensive ones. Automotive canter more on standardizing workflows with stable processes, efficiency along with compliance focus.

AS9102 aerospace first article inspection(FAI)

The First Article Inspection (FAI) process in the aerospace industry was standardized by SAE through AS9102. It is for aerospace product manufacturers and suppliers to assure that their FAIs meet these requirements. The first article of any manufactured part must be documented in detail and verified against design requirements for production. These main forms are discussed below as stated in AS9102.

  • Form 1 (Part Number Accountability) covers the part number of the product and its associated details.
  • Form 2 (Product Accountability) records details of raw materials used, processes and functional tests.
  • Form 3 (Characteristic Accountability) records details of every design feature of the product, such as dimensions, tolerances, etc., with measurement results. ) records details of every design feature of the product, such as dimensions, tolerances, etc., along with measurement results.

The first article inspection(FAI) process

Steps of First Article Inspection

1. Preparation Stage

Collecting Required Documents: This will involve assembling all the required documents for the part such as engineering drawings, specifications and quality standards.

Prepare Inspection Equipment: At this stage, it is necessary to ensure that inspection equipment; measurement equipment, tools and instruments are calibrated and in good condition.

Select Inspection Samples: According to agreement or standards select representative samples for inspection.

Train Inspection Personnel: It is important that people taking part in inspections know what they should do during the tests.

2. Implementation Stage

Record Identifications of parts: Traceability marks or other forms of identification should be placed on each inspected part so as to create a link between it and its associated documentation.

Conduct Measurements On Parts Where Applicable: Use the necessary measuring equipment when determining dimensions of parts from engineering drawings and specifications.

Maintain Record Of Results Of Inspections Done: The measurements taken by an inspector have to be posted against each characteristic stating if they meet the requirements or not.

Dealing With Non-Conforming Parts One must follow the quality management processes for handling non-conforming parts which may include but are not limited to rework, repair or scrap where found to be non-conforming.

3. Recording Stage

Create Inspection Report : Prepare an initial article inspection report using the output of inspection that includes all measurement data and inspection outcomes .

Examine Report Ensure that relevant staff examine and endorse the inquiry report prior to release .

Store Records : Store first article inspection reports with related documents for archival purposes, including traceability into future reference .

To achieve effective First Article Inspection (FAI), engineers should always work within strict compliance of engineering drawings and specifications in order to avoid any errors. For future traceability, verification purposes inclusive record keeping at every significant phase is very crucial . Also, corrective action must be undertaken on non-conforming items promptly so as not to affect subsequent production in terms of quality issues.

First article inspection report form and checklist requirements

The FAI report is a comprehensive document form that provides detailed information about the inspection and verification of the first production unit against specified requirements. It includes measurements, test results, and any deviations from the design or requirements.

and we also make a First article inspection report template for your reference, please download it here.

The FAI checklist:

  1. Documentation Review: Thoroughly examine the engineering drawings, specifications, and any other relevant documents to understand the part requirements.
  2. Measurement Equipment Setup: Calibrate and set up the measurement equipment to ensure accurate and reliable measurements.
  3. Sample Selection: Choose the first manufactured part or a representative sample for inspection.
  4. Dimensional Inspection: Measure the part dimensions using tools like calipers, micrometers, coordinate measuring machines (CMM), etc., to verify that they meet the specified tolerances.
  5. Functional Inspection: If applicable, test the part’s functionality to ensure it performs as intended.

First article inspection (FAI) systems and software

FAI has specialized systems and software tools to make it more efficient and accurate. Inspection management processes can be automated and there is a capacity for one to handle data records, this streamlines the workflow process in that it makes sure that they are following specifications. Additionally, these also enhance workflows as well as facilitate intra-team communication.

In this regards, there are several packages available:

  • InspectionXpert: This software automates the FAI forms and inspection plan creation using CAD files hence making the inspection quick and less error prone.
  • FAI Pro: It offers complete solutions for handling FAI procedures including report writing, document management, inspection result tracking among others.
  • QMSCAPA: QMSCAPA is a quality management software which integrates FAI functionality like generating of FAI reports along with supporting material regarding those tests plus provision of means to ensure compliance with relevant standards.
  • CMM Software: Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) software such as PC-DMIS helps draft programs that perform dimensional inspections thereby ensuring that reliable measurement values are obtained for a First Article Inspection.
  • ERP Systems: Some Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems like SAP or Oracle have built-in modules that handle FAIs within broader manufacturing operations.


In conclusion, First Article Inspection (FAI) is indispensable for maintaining quality and compliance in manufacturing. By adhering to rigorous inspection standards and utilizing advanced software tools, manufacturers can ensure the production of high-quality products that meet customer expectations.


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